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维特根斯坦的《哲学研究》摘译  

维特根斯坦是20世纪最有影响力的哲学家之一,其研究领域主要在数学哲学、精神哲学和语言哲学等方面,曾经师从英国著名作家、哲学家罗素。他在生前出版的著作不多,只有1篇书评,1本儿童辞典,和1本75页的《逻辑哲学论》(1921年)。


 If I hear someone say "it's raining" but do not know whether I have heard the beginning and end of the period, so far this sentence does not serve to tell me anything.

如果我听到某人说“天在下雨”而不知道我是否已听到该过程的开始和结束,那么对我来说这个语句根本还不是交流手段。

Here the term "language-game" is meant to bring into prominence the fact that the speaking of language is part of an activity, or of a form of life.

在这里“语言游戏”一词的用意在于突出下列这个事实,即语言的述说乃是一种活动,或是一种生活形式的一个部分。《哲学研究》第23节。

Frege compares a concept to an area and says that an area with vague boundaries cannot be called an area at all. This presumably means that we cannot do anything with it.—But is it senseless to say: "Stand roughly there"?
弗雷格把概念同一块区域相比;他说,边界含混的区域根本不能称之为区域。这句话的意思大概是说我们不可能用它来做任何事情。——但是,如果我们说:“请你大致上站在这儿”,这种说法难道也是没有意思的吗?
《哲学研究》第71节


107. The more narrowly we examine actual language, the sharper becomes the conflict between it and our requirement. (For the crystalline purity of logic was, of course, not a result of investigation: it was a requirement.) The conflict becomes intolerable; the requirement is now in danger of becoming empty.—We have got on to slippery ice where there is no friction and so in a certain sense the conditions are ideal, but also, just because of that, we are unable to walk. We want to walk: so we need friction. Back to the rough ground!
维特根斯坦《哲学研究》107节:我们越严密地考察实际的语言,它和我们的要求之间的冲突就越尖锐。

249. Are we perhaps over-hasty in our assumption that the smile of an unweaned infant is not a pretence?—And on what experience is our assumption based? (Lying is a language-game that needs to be learned like any other one.)

249.当我们假定说,襁褓中的婴儿的微笑不会是假装的,我们是否可能过于性急了?—— 而且我们的假定是基于什么经验呢?
(说谎是一种语言游戏。就像任何其他语言游戏一样它也是需要学


262. It might be said: if you have given yourself a private definition of a word, then you must inwardly undertake to use the word in such-and-such a way. And how do you undertake that? Is it to be assumed that you invent the technique of using the word; or that you found it ready-made?
262.可以这么说:如果你私下给一个词下了定义,那你必须内在地做到这样或那样去使用这个词。你怎么做到的?能假定你发明了使用这个词的技能;或是你发现了现成技能?

289. "When I say 'I am in pain' I am at any rate justified before myself"—What does that mean? Does it mean: "If someone else could know what I am calling 'pain', he would admit that I was using the word correctly"? To use a word without a justification does not mean to use it without right.

289“当我说‘我痛’,不管怎样对我自己是合理的。”——这是什么意思?这难道意味着:“别人可能知道我称作‘痛’的是什么,而再承认我对这个词的使用是正确的”?不加辩白地使用一个词并不意味着错误地使用一个词。
298. The very fact that we should so much like to say: "This is the important thing"—while we point privately to the sensation— is enough to shew how much we are inclined to say something which gives no information.

289.我们总是非常喜欢说:“这是重要的东西”—— 其实私下里指向感觉—— 这个事实本身足以表明我们是多么倾向于说一些未给出信息的东西。

326. We expect this, and are surprised at that. But the chain of reasons has an end.

326. 我们指望这个,而对那个感到奇怪。但是理由之链终有尽头。



329.When I think in language, there aren't 'meanings' going through my mind in addition to the verbal expressions: the language is itself the vehicle of thought.

329.当我用语言思想时,在我的心里只有词语的表达,那不是“意义”:语言自身只是思想的工具。

343. The words with which I express my memory are my memory-reaction.
343.表达我记忆的话语是我的记忆反应。(言下之意,不是记忆—— 俺注)


374. The great difficulty here is not to represent the matter as if there were something one couldn't do. As if there really were an object, from which I derive its description, but I were unable to shew it to anyone.———And the best that I can propose is that we should yield to the temptation to use this picture, but then investigate how the application of the picture goes.

374.这里最难的不是体现‘做不到’的事情。类似真的有个东西,我能描述却无法显示给任何人。—— 而我能给出的最好提议是,不应拒绝想使用这幅图画的诱惑,而且随后去探究这幅图画的‘应用’是怎样施行的。

501. "The purpose of language is to express thoughts."—So presumably the purpose of every sentence is to express a thought. Then what thought is expressed, for example, by the sentence "It's raining"?—
501.“语言的目的是表达思想”。—— 想必每个句子的目的是表达一个思想。那么,例如“下雨了”这个句子表达的是什么思想?——
[ 此帖被姜海舟在2017-08-22 21:55重新编辑 ]
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